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From trade partner to security threat — a look back at 50 years of relations with China.
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In a recent meeting, Chinese President Xi Jinping and Prime Minister Anthony Albanese noted the importance of today's 50th anniversary of Chinese-Australian ties, pledging to improve relations moving forward.
"There are no fundamental conflicting interests between China and Australia," a Ministry of Foreign Affairs statement later said.
While the occasion saw a thawing of ties and paved the way for Foreign Minister Penny Wong's trip to Beijing today, the past five decades have been anything but straightforward.
Here's a look back at how relations began, where things went wrong, and how we've landed where we are today.
On this day in 1972, Gough Whitlam broke ranks with the United States and established relations with the People's Republic of China. 
As part of the deal, Australia would close its consulate in Taipei and recognise Beijing as China's capital.
In a final blow to the hardline communist, anti-capitalist ideology of China's Cultural Revolution, Chairman Mao Zedong dies.
"Mao's conception of society was and is not ours, but he achieved peace internally and respect for China," former prime minister Malcolm Fraser said at the time.
New leader Deng Xiaoping introduces major reforms by opening the country up to foreign investment and private business. 
These reforms would form the basis of the new "socialism with Chinese characteristics" economy and political system. 
General secretary Hu Yaobang visits Australia, meeting with Bob Hawke who takes him to an iron ore mine.
Economic cooperation deals are signed, strengthening ties through trade, in addition to new Chinese consulates opening across Australia.
Hu Yaobang — who was also popular among China's youth as a democratic reformist — dies of a heart attack, sparking student uprisings.
The uprisings escalate into the Tiananmen Square pro-democracy movement, which Beijing responds to with military force, killing hundreds of students.
After the massacre, Hawke grants 40,000 Chinese students amnesty, leading to the largest migration since the Gold Rush. 
Beijing joins APEC, an inter-governmental body formed by Hawke aimed at promoting free trade in the Asia-Pacific region.
The move helps China's economy open up — by 2020 Chinese trade with APEC countries would reach nearly $3 trillion per year.
Newly-elected prime minister John Howard angers Beijing by reinvigorating the US alliance with criticisms over Taiwan, and meeting with the Dalai Lama.
Beijing responds by punishing Australian businesses in China and freezing ministerial visits.
Relations later thaw after a critical meeting between Mr Howard and leader Jiang Zemin at APEC in late 1996.
Mr Howard would later refer to the meeting as one of the most important during his time in the top job.
The United Kingdom hands Hong Kong back to China, who rejects various democratic reforms introduced by the former governor.
Home to one of Australia's largest overseas communities, foreign affairs minister Alexander Downer calls the move "disappointing".
Following lengthy negotiations and concerns about its socio-economic policies, China becomes a member of the World Trade Organization.
Signed up with "developing nation" status, within a decade China would have the second-largest economy in the world, and be Australia's largest trading partner.
Chinese president Hu Jintao becomes the first paramount leader to visit Australia and address parliament.
The historic event causes an uproar as only US presidents had addressed parliament before, and usually as a gesture in support of democracy.
Due to his experience and ability to speak Mandarin, newly-elected prime minster Kevin Rudd attracts high hopes he can effectively engage China.
His approach is initially praised, but some decisions are later perceived as missteps — such as criticisms of China's military — leading to another breakdown in ties.
Relations would thaw again later that year, and trade with China would be seen as a key reason Australia survived the global financial crisis relatively unscathed.
New leader Xi Jinping visits Australia calling for both nations to respect mutual differences and focus on the positives.
A free trade agreement between the two nations is negotiated by Tony Abbott's government and finalised soon after. 
Former prime minister Malcolm Turnbull introduces foreign interference laws amid accusations of spying and meddling in Australian politics.
The move would catalyse the latest public breakdown in trade and ties, including the blocking of the ABC in China.
The outbreak of COVID-19, followed by accusations China mishandled the virus, drags the relationship to one of its lowest points.
Between 2019 and 2020, two high profile Chinese Australians would be detained by Beijing, and billions of dollars of trade sanctions introduced.
Despite numerous attempts by the Scott Morrison government, years go by without a high-level one-on-one meeting or visit.
Newly-elected Prime Minister Anthony Albanese meets one-on-one with Xi Jinping on the sidelines of the G20 summit.
The Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs would later release a statement that the two nations have "no fundamental conflicting differences"… 
Today, after Foreign Minister Penny Wong spent the 50th anniversary in Beijing seeking to amend ties, talks ended without significant results, but with a commitment to improve relations in 2023.
Read the story in Chinese: 阅读中文版本
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